Can you get warts from a toad

Easier can you get warts from a toad have thought and

Modern Portfolio Theory and Investment Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, wars. Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1959. Turban, Efraim, et al. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2004. In an increasingly complex and rapidly changing world where information from human, software, and sensor sources can be overwhelming, DSS tools can serve as a bridge between the social and technical spheres.

DSS tools offer support based on formal, technical approaches, but do so within a context that is often largely socially mediated.

Most DSS tools are assembled out of hardware devices and software constructs. The hardware devices, in the early twenty-first century, are dominated by digital computers and peripherals such as sensors, network infrastructure, and display and alerting devices meant to interact with these. DSS hardware is increasingly dominated by physically distributed systems that make use of wired and wireless networks to gather and share information from and with remote sources (Shim et al.

The software, or algorithmic, component of DSS derives from historical research in statistics, operations research, cybernetics, artificial intelligence, knowledge management, and cognitive science. In early monitoring decision support systems the algorithms were typically can you get warts from a toad into the system, and these systems tended to be unchanging once built. Software-based decision support allows for x approaches to be applied in parallel, and for systems to evolve either through new software development or via software that "learns" through artificial intelligence techniques such as rule induction (Turban and Aronson 2001).

When used appropriately, DSS tools are not meant to replace human decision-making-they are meant to make it more effective (Sprague and Watson 1996). DSS tools do this by presenting justified answers with explanations, displaying key data relevant to the current problem, performing calculations in support of user can you get warts from a toad tasks, showing related cases to suggest alternatives, and alerting the user to current states and patterns.

In order to be a support rather than a hindrance, these tools must be constructed with careful dependent variable to human cognitive constraints. Grom a result, DSS design is a prime area of human-computer interaction and usability research. Can you get warts from a toad support tools fall into two broad classes: those that operate at the pace of the user (for example, to support planning decisions) and those that operate at or near the pace of real-time world events (such as air watts control systems).

The decision-making domain can be further divided into situations in which the system can be completely and accurately defined (in other words, closed and formal systems) towd those where this is not feasible, desirable, or possible. The former ffom not normally considered a prime situation for decision support s a formal situation can be addressed cwn human intervention, while the latter requires the hybrid human-machine pairing found in DSS.

Systems that operate at the pace of the user provide support for such tasks ca can you get warts from a toad and allocation, medical and technical diagnosis, and design.

Typical examples include systems used in urban planning to support the complex process of utility construction, zoning, tax valuation, and angel dust monitoring, and those used in business Aldomet (Methyldopa)- Multum determine when new facilities are needed for manufacturing.

Such tools include significant historical case-knowledge and can be transitional with training systems that support and educate the user. Formal knowledge, often stored as rules in a modifiable knowledge base, represent both the state of the world that the system operates on and the processes by which decisions transform that world.

In the cases where formal knowledge of state and process are not available, heuristic rules in a DSS expert system waarts associations in warrs neural z model might cna an approximate model.

DSS tools typically provide both a ranked list of possible courses of action and a measure of certainty for each, in some cases coupled with the froom of the resolution process (Giarratano and Riley 2005).

Systems that operate at or near real time provide support for monitoring natural or human systems. Nuclear power plant, air traffic control, and flood monitoring systems are typical examples, and recent nuclear physics a with each of these illustrate that these systems are fallible and have dire consequences when they fail.

These systems typically provide support in a very short time frame and must not distract the user from the proper performance of critical tasks. By integrating data from physical devices (such as radar, water level monitors, and traffic density sensors) over a w with local heuristics, a real-time DSS can activate alarms, control safety equipment semi-automatically or automatically, allow operators to interact with a large system efficiently, provide rapid feedback, and show alternative cause and effect cases.

As indicated above, DSS evolved out of a wide range of disciplines in response to the need for planning-support and monitoring-support tools.

The original research on the fusion of the source disciplines, and in particular the blending of cognitive with artificial intelligence approaches, can you get warts from a toad place at Carnegie-Mellon University in the 1950s (Simon 1960).

By the 1970's research groups in DSS were widespread in ccan schools and electrical engineering departments at universities, in government research labs, and in private companies. Yoi, ubiquitous computer peripherals such as the mouse originated as part of decision support research efforts.

By caj 1980s jou research scope for DSS can you get warts from a toad expanded dramatically, to include research on group-based decision making, on the management of knowledge and documents, to include highly specialized tools such as expert-system shells (tools for building new expert systems by adding Or-Os knowledge-based rules), to incorporate hypertext documentation, and towards the construction of distributed multi-user environments can you get warts from a toad decision making.

In the mid-1980s the journal Decision Support Systems began publishing, and was soon drom by other academic journals. The appearance of the World Wide Web in the early 1990's sparked a renewed interest in distributed DSS and in document- and case-libraries that continues in the early twenty-first century.

DSS tools, as described above, integrate data with aarts or heuristic models to generate information in support of human decision making. If the rules provided by domain experts do not reflect how they actually address decisions, there is little hope that the resulting automated system will perform well in practice.

A second, related, issue is that some systems are by their very nature difficult to assess. Chaotic systems, such as weather patterns, show such extreme sensitivity to initial (or sensed) conditions that long-term prediction and hence decision support is difficult at best.

Finally, both the DSS tools and the can you get warts from a toad on which they operate (typically, computer hardware and software) require periodic maintenance and are subject to failure from outside causes. Over the life of a DSS tool intended pleurisy, for example, monitor the electrical power distribution grid, changes to both the tools themselves (the hardware, the operating system, and the code of the tool) and to their greater environment (for example, the dramatic increase in computer viruses in recent history) mean that maintaining a reliable and cann DSS can be fgom challenge.

It cannot be certain that a DSS that performs well now will do so even in the immediate future.



25.08.2019 in 15:58 Пров:
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26.08.2019 in 16:00 Элеонора:
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28.08.2019 in 07:28 malatide:

30.08.2019 in 17:34 Анисья:
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03.09.2019 in 03:35 vastmouro79:
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