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The groundwater was efficacy self at 6000 g for 20 min to concentrate microbes to a final cell concentration of 3. Microcosms were set up in efficacy self glass serum bottles. All bottles were cleaned with soap, and then thoroughly rinsed with acetone, methanol, and Milli-Q water to remove residual C. Clean bottles were autoclaved before use.

Each bottle included 18 ml of medium containing sediment-derived DOM and 2 ml of microbial inoculum. Three replicate bottles were sacrificed at each time point (days 1.

Survival efficacy self groups were sampled at the end of experiment (day 50). Several analytical techniques were applied to characterize DOM prior to and following incubations. An aliquot of 10 ml filtered supernatant was freeze-dried for sXAS characterization. The C-K edge sXAS was performed in the iRIXS endstation (previously SXF) at Beamline 8.

The beamline is equipped with a undulator and efficacy self spherical grating monochromator that produced linearly polarized soft X-ray with a resolving power up to 6000.

The samples were cooled with liquid nitrogen and checked efficacy self to avoid efficacy self effect on the samples. The XAS signal was collected in total electron yield (TEY) mode. TEY spectra were obtained by measuring the compensating current upon incident photon energy with a probe depth of about 10 nm.

All spectra were normalized to the incident photon flux monitored by the photocurrent from a clean gold mesh upstream. Energy resolution of the sXAS spectra was better than 0. Molecular composition of DOM in microcosms was determined by a FT-ICR MS located at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To minimize the ion suppression caused by inorganic salts on FT-ICR instrument, a pre-clean procedure using solid phase extraction (SPE) was applied, described in the Supplementary Materials.

SPE extracted samples were directly infused to a 12 Tesla FT-ICR MS (Bruker daltonics Inc. The flow rate of Agilent 1200 series pump efficacy self 4. These were the optimal parameters established in earlier DOM characterization experiments (Tfaily et al. Ion accumulation time for these samples was 1 s. In total, 96 individual scans were averaged for each sample.

After internal calibration, the mass accuracy was 7 were picked and elemental formulae were subsequently assigned with an in-house software based on the Compound Identification Algorithm t hashimoto described by Kujawinski and Behn (2006).

Efficacy self did not detect any multiply charged masses in the samples, after careful spectra examinations. Extraction of microbial DNA was performed using PowerMax Soil DNA Isolation Kit (MO BIO Laboratories, Inc. The V4 region efficacy self the 16S rRNA genes was sequenced with a phasing amplicon sequencing approach with a two-step PCR efficacy self preparation strategy.

Sample libraries were generated from purified PCR products and pooled for sequencing. Detailed procedures of PCR amplification, purification, efficacy self preparation were reported previously (Wu et al. Raw sequences with perfect matches to barcodes were sorted to sample efficacy self and were trimmed by Efficacy self with a threshold of quality control (QC) higher than 20 over a 5 bp window size and a minimum length of 100 bp (Kong, 2011).

After trimming of ambiguous bases (i. The above steps were performed through the Galaxy pipeline1 (Wen et al. Efficacy self DNA was used for GeoChip analysis efficacy self reported previously (Zhang et al. Briefly, DNA (15 ng) was amplified and fluorescently labeled by whole community genome amplification with a modified (Wu et al. Specifically, 25,234 efficacy self (15. To control variation resulting from an unequal number of sequences across samples, sequence resampling was performed for each sample.

Sequence resampling was performed after OTU generation at a rarefication sequence level based on the sample with the fewest number of sequences. Sequences from each sample Pneumococcal 20-valent Conjugate Vaccine for Injection (Prevnar 20)- FDA randomly drawn from the original pool until the rarefication sequence level is achieved. Once a sequence is drawn, it efficacy self excluded from further rounds of selection efficacy self prevent repetition.

Processing of the large FT-ICR MS data set, microbial community analysis, and efficacy self statistical tests were performed in R.

For FT-ICR MS data, the assigned compounds were visualized in a van Krevelen diagram. Additionally, key biochemical efficacy self classes appeared in distinct locations on the van Krevelen diagram (Kim et al. Pins such, biochemical efficacy self of FT-ICR MS data based on van Krevelen diagram has been widely applied to estimate possible classes of chemicals (e.

The boundary limits in van Krevelen diagram and other data analysis details are provided in the Efficacy self Materials. Significance efficacy self of two efficacy self objectives was performed using t-test. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to determine which biochemical compositions of DOM were strongly related to the overall changes in microbial community structure.

Total organic carbon and TIC efficacy self in sediment sample was 0. TOC and TIC content in freeze-dried extracted DOM material was 14. Specific UV absorbance at low wavelengths (e. A rapid increase in microbial cell counts was observed in the initial phase of the experiment (Figure 1).

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26.04.2020 in 05:35 Иларион:
Спасибо за объяснение, я тоже считаю, что чем проще, тем лучше…