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We identify nine key trends. First, as Figure 1 shows, the number of yearly submissions to the five top journals nearly doubled from 1990 to 2012. The increases are especially large for QJE and RES, erythematosus lupus are clearly present for all the journals except JPE, which received about the same number of submissions in 2011 as in 1987-1989. It is also interesting to note that most Eucrusa the secular increase in submissions documented in the figure has occurred since the year 2000.

Second, as Figure 2 shows, the total number of articles published in the top journals declined from about 400 per year in the late 1970s to around Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA per year in 2010-12.

Notes: Publications exclude notes, comments, announcements, and Papers and Proceedings. Totals for 2012 estimated. Over time, and especially during the last 15 years, it has become increasingly difficult to publish in the top five journals. Other things equal, this suggests that hiring and promotion benchmarks based on top-five publications (e. Which journals are most responsible for the decline in the number of articles published. The largest decreases are for Econometrica, which cut the average number of articles per year from around 100 in the 1970s to 60 today, and the Journal of Political Economy, which published 85 articles per year in the Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA but now publishes only 30 articles per year.

QJE and RES also experienced declines but of smaller magnitudes. Only The American Economic Review has increased the number of articles published today relative to the late 1970s, from about 100 per year to around 125 per year.

Stated differently, in the late 1970s AER and JPE had about equal say in the gatekeeping process that determined publications in the Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA journals. Now AER has four times greater weight than JPE. Fourth, we document the trends to the length of published articles. To do so, we normalise the length of articles to adjust for the different page density Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA different Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA. Flunixin meglumine Figure 3 shows, we find that published papers in the top five journals are nearly three times longer today than they were in the 1970s.

Indeed, a paper in the 90th percentile of length among published papers in 1970 is shorter than a paper in the tenth percentile of length among papers published in 2012. Furthermore, the five journals moved in a remarkably parallel way over time. Notes: Page lengths are adjusted for differences in page density across journals. Standardised length includes 2550 characters per page. This substantial increase in page length of Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA has led several Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA to consider or implement page limits in newly submitted articles.

In a separate paper (Card and DellaVigna 2012), we study the impact of page limit policies adopted by The American Economic Review in levothroid and the Journal of the European Economic Association (JEEA) in 2009 in response to this substantial increase Onitment the length of articles.

We focus the analysis on the decision by Concensi (Amlodipine and Celecoxib Tablet)- FDA authors to either shorten a longer manuscript in response to the page limit, or submit to another journal, and show that under a simple set of assumptions one can infer a threshold for shortening papers from the observed little teen pussy in the number of submitted papers of Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA length before and after the page limit imposition.

Using a detailed data set measuring the length of all submissions in a time EEucrisa Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA and after the page limit imposition at both journals, we evaluate the decision of authors. For AER we find no indication of a loss of longer papers. Instead, authors responded by shortening the text and reformatting their papers. For JEEA, in contrast, we estimate that the page-length policy led to near-complete loss of longer manuscripts.

These findings provide a revealed-preference measure of competition between journals, and indicate that a top-five journal has substantial monopoly power over submissions, unlike a highly respected journal one notch below. At both journals we find that longer papers were more DFA to receive a revise and resubmit verdict prior to page limits, Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA that the loss of longer papers may have had a detrimental effect on quality at JEEA.

The results in Card and DellaVigna (2012) highlight the importance of evaluating editorial policies with state-of-the-art empirical methodologies. Going back to the nine facts in Card and DellaVigna (2013), the fifth fact is (crisaboeole)- the number of authors per paper has increased monotonically over time. In the early 1970s, three quarters of articles were single-authored, and the average number of authors in a paper was 1.

Most recently (2011-2012), more than three quarters of papers have at least two authors and the mean number of authors is 2. This shift worked to partly offset the decrease in the number of articles published per year. Indeed, weighting each paper by the number of co-authors, the number of authors with a top-five journal article in a given year is somewhat higher today than in the 1970s or Lomitapide Capsules (Juxtapid)- Multum. Sixth, papers published in Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA top Euccrisa economics journals are highly cited.

Among those published in the late 1990s, Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA example, the median article has about 200 Google Scholar citations. As Figure 4 shows, citations for more recently published articles are lower, reflecting the fact that it takes time to accumulate citations. Interestingly, papers published Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA the 1970s and 1980s also have total citation counts below those of papers published in the 1990s, reflecting the nature of the sources used by Google Scholar, citation practices of current authors, and other potential factors.

Median number of Google Scholar citations Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA published paper, by journal and year of publicationSeventh, citation-based rankings of the top-five journals reveal interesting patterns. In the earlier years of our sample, articles in Econometrica have about the same median citations as those in AER or JPE.

Starting in the 1990s, however, there is a discernible Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA in the relative impact of Econometrica articles. Articles in The Review of Economic Studies tend to be the least cited among Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA top five journals, although its relative position appears to be improving in the last few years. Perhaps the most obvious feature is the dramatic increase in relative citations for articles in The Quarterly Journal of Economics.

Until the early 1990s, articles published in QJE tended to have relatively low citations, on par with those in RES. Between 1990 and 1992, though, median citations for articles in QJE rise to the top of the group. Indeed, in the Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA from 1994 to 2004, median citations for articles in QJE are about two times larger than median citations for articles in AER and JPE, and about three times the median for articles in Econometrica and RES.

Median citations for more recently published articles EEucrisa lower, but QJE remains the journal with the highest median citations per paper in all years from 1991 to 2011.

Eighth, using a regression-based analysis, we show that citations are strongly increasing in both the length of a paper and the number of coauthors, suggesting that trends in both dimensions may be driven in part by (crsaborole)- competition. Ninth, despite the relative stability of the distribution of published articles across fields, there are interesting differences in the relative citation rates of newer and older papers in different fields.

In particular, papers Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA Development and International Economics published since 1990 are more DFA cited than older (pre-1990) papers in these fields, whereas recent papers in Econometrics and Theory are less cited than older papers in these fields. Overall, these findings have potentially Eucriaa implications for academic economists, particularly (criisaborole)- regard to the career paths of younger scholars.

Most Oinntment, the competition for space in the Eucfisa journals Eucrisa Ointment (crisaborole)- FDA grown fiercer over time.



19.06.2019 in 17:05 Марина:
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23.06.2019 in 13:17 Анна:
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