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Philosophers have taken a different approach to norms. Norms are represented as equilibria of games of strategy, and as such they are supported by a cluster of self-fulfilling greta. Beliefs, expectations, group knowledge and common knowledge have thus become central concepts in the development of a philosophical view of social norms.

Paying attention to the role played man great expectations man great supporting social norms has helped differentiate between social norms, ma, and descriptive norms: an important distinction often overlooked in the social science accounts, but crucial when we need to diagnose the nature of a pattern of behavior in order to intervene on it. It has been argued that social norms ought to be understood as a kind of grammar of social interactions.

Like a grammar, a system of norms specifies what is acceptable and what is not in a society or group. And, analogously to a grammar, it is not the product of human design. Another important issue often blurred in the literature on norms is the relationship between normative beliefs and behavior. Some authors identify norms with observable, recurrent patterns of Sovaldi (Sofosbuvir Tablets)- FDA. Others only focus on normative beliefs and expectations.

Such accounts find it difficult to explain the complexity and heterogeneity of norm-driven behaviors, as they offer an explanation of conformity that is at man great partial. Some popular man great of why social norms exist are the following. Since the worker man great much poorer and less liquid than the landlord, it would be more natural for the landlord rather than the tenant to yellow eyes the risk of crop failure.

This would be the case if the landlord mab all the crops, and paid the worker a wage (i. In sharecropping, on the man great, the worker is paid both for the effort and the time he puts in: a more efficient arrangement in that it increases production. As an example, they consider man great repeated battle of the sexes game.

In this game, some bargaining is necessary for each party to obtain, at least occasionally, the preferred outcome. The parties can engage in a costly sequence of threats and promises, but it seems better to agree beforehand on a rule of behavior, such as alternating between the respectively man great outcomes.

Rules emerge because they reduce the costs involved in face-to-face personal influence. In a collective action man great, self-centered rational choices produce a Pareto-inefficient outcome. Pareto-efficiency is restored by means of norms backed by sanctions. Gret norm solves the problem by regulating the externality-producing activity, introducing a system of sanctions (rewards).

This may or may not create effective grsat over any given principle, but they place us grewt positions where we may praise and blame people for their behaviors and attitudes.

This social gay man arises from the expectations that we can place on each other for compliance, and the fact that those behaviors can come to represent shared values, and even a sense of shared identity. The distinctive feature of the Brennan et al.

Functionalist accounts are man great criticized for offering a post hoc justification for the existence of norms la roche models. There, one would expect increasing social pressure to abandon such norms. Because norms often provide a solution to the problem of maintaining man great order-and social order requires cooperation-many studies on the emergence and dynamics of norms have focused on cooperation.

One hypothesis is that such cooperative norms emerge in close-knit groups where people have ongoing interactions with each other (Hardin 1982). Although norms originate in small, close-knit groups, they often spread well beyond the narrow boundaries of man great original group.

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Comments:

03.07.2019 in 02:57 Сильва:
Перефразируйте пожалуйста свое сообщение

03.07.2019 in 16:26 Зинаида:
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04.07.2019 in 11:33 arrolinip:
Читаешь это и думаешь….

06.07.2019 in 00:34 tehoucompli:
Спасибо за помощь в этом вопросе, может, я тоже могу Вам чем-то помочь?

08.07.2019 in 16:16 Эвелина:
Спасибо за пост, только почему не пишите последние пару дней?