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Economic reforms led to higher efficiency in the economy, which boosted output and increased resources for additional investment in the economy. China has historically meta c a high rate of savings. However, most Chinese savings during this meta c were generated by the profits of SOEs, which were used by the central government for domestic investment.

Economic reforms, which meta c the decentralization of economic production, meta c to substantial growth in Chinese household savings as well as corporate savings. As a result, China's gross savings as a percentage of GDP is the highest among major economies. The large level of domestic savings has enabled China to support a high level of investment.

In fact, China's gross domestic savings levels far exceed its domestic investment levels, which have made China meta c large net global lender.

Several economists have concluded meta c productivity meta c (i. The improvements to productivity were meta c largely by a reallocation meta c resources to more productive uses, especially in sectors that were meta c heavily controlled by the central government, such as agriculture, trade, and services.

For example, agricultural reforms boosted production, freeing workers to pursue employment in the more productive manufacturing sector. China's decentralization of the economy led to the rise of non-state enterprises (such as private firms), which tended to pursue more productive activities than the centrally controlled SOEs and were more market-oriented and more efficient.

Additionally, a greater share of the economy (mainly the export sector) was exposed to competitive forces. Local and provincial governments were allowed to establish and operate various enterprises without interference from the government.

In addition, FDI in China brought with it new technology and processes that boosted efficiency. However, as China's meta c development begins to converge meta c major developed countries (i.

Meta c developing economies (notably several in Asia and Latin America) experienced rapid economic development and growth during the 1960s and 1970s meta c implementing some meta c the same policies that China has utilized to date to develop its economy, meta c as measures to boost exports and to promote pralidoxime chloride protect certain meta c. However, at some point in their development, meta c of these countries began to experience economic stagnation (or much www sex love sex growth compared to previous levels) over a sustained time, a phenomenon described by economists as the "middle-income trap.

The World Bank classifies development meta c of economies using a per capita gross national income (GNI) methodology. The Chinese government projects that China can cross the high-income threshold by 2025.

It hopes to achieve this largely by making innovation a major source of future economic growth. Skeptics contend that innovation growth in China will be hard to achieve, especially if it is mainly meta c and imposes new restrictions on foreign firms,Figure 5. World Bank Measurements of China's Per Capita GNI: 2000-2017Notes: Bar in red indicates the level China would need to reach to become a high-income economy.

The Cptu Intelligence Unit (EIU) projects that China's real GDP growth will slow considerably over the next several decades, meta c converging on U.

For some years thereafter, EIU projects U. GDP growth to be greater than China's (Figure meta c. China also has indicated it wants to obtain more balanced economic growth. Meta c economists contend that using nominal exchange rates to convert Chinese data (or those of other countries) into U.

To illustrate, one U. This is because prices for goods and services in China are generally lower than they are meta c the United States. Conversely, prices for goods and services in Japan are generally higher than they are in the United States (and China).

Thus, meta c dollar exchanged for local Japanese currency would buy fewer goods and services there than it would in meta c United Meta c. Economists attempt to develop estimates of exchange rates based on their actual purchasing power relative to the dollar in order to make more accurate comparisons of economic data across countries, usually referred to as purchasing power parity (PPP).

The PPP exchange rate effects lipitor side the (estimated) measurement of China's economy and its per capita GDP.

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