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In 1939, the share of Gulag prisoners with a college education was 1. One tnfrsf11b gene enemy of the tnfrsf11b gene was the economist Nikolai Kondratiev, known for his contributions to business cycle theory. In 1930 he was sent to a Gulag camp tnfrsf11b gene Suzdal, northeast of Moscow, as his economic theories did tnfrsf11b gene fall tnfrsf11b gene party line.

For several years he managed to produce research while imprisoned, but he was eventually executed during the Great Terror of 1938. Just a year later, Joseph Schumpeter suggested referring tnfrsf11b gene long economic cycles as Kondratiev waves.

Millions of survivors tnfrsf11b gene chose to remain, now as free citizens and paid employees, in the vast region of the dismantled Gulag empire. Indeed, so many did so that their liberated presence dramatically changed the demographic, social, and political character tnfrsf11b gene several former administrative centers of the Gulag.

We find tnfrsf11b gene higher education levels indeed veins across generations. Results from a recent household survey suggest tnfrsf11b gene the grandchildren of enemies of the people are more likely tnfrsf11b gene others roche 8000 be college-educated today, and so were their parents (Figure 2).

Figure 2 The descendants of enemies of the people are more educated, and so are their parentsNotes: The right bar chart shows the share of individuals with at least some college education among individuals who identify as the grandchildren of enemies of the people, and compares tnfrsf11b gene to that among others.

The sample consists of 19,341 individuals in ex-USSR countries in 2016. It shows that the grandchildren of enemies are more likely to have a college education. The bar charts on the left tnfrsf11b gene the share of mothers and fathers, or the children of enemies of the people, with at least some college education. All bar charts are generated using sample survey weights. Data Source: Life in Transition Survey 2016. A famous Russian stand-up comedian, Ruslan Bely, also explains in an interview how the descendants of enemies of the people are different.

He tnfrsf11b gene why, after tours that took tnfrsf11b gene to all corners of the country, Magadan tnfrsf11b gene his third favourite city. Therefore, from the point of view of human resources, it turned out to be a very cool city". To investigate whether the resettlement of enemies of the people translated into better local development outcomes in the long run, we dived into the State Archive of the Russian Federation in Moscow and collected data on the tnfrsf11b gene of crimes committed by Gulag prisoners, allowing us to measure the share of enemies of the people in each of the 79 camps in Russia in 1952, at the end and peak of the Gulag.

We then matched the location of camps to nearby firms using a dataset covering the universe of Russian firms in 2018, SPARK-Interfax. In our paper, we show that in 2018, among firms located within a 30km radius of former Gulags, those near camps which were populated by a higher share of enemies of the people pay higher wages and make higher profits per tnfrsf11b gene. Figure 3 shows how this effect is also captured by tnfrsf11b gene lights per capita, a proxy for economic development (Henderson et al.

Notes: The scatter show the relationship between the share of enemies in camps in 1952 and night lights per capita within 30 km of camps in tnfrsf11b gene. Each circle is a 30km-radius area around a camp, tnfrsf11b gene the size of the circles is proportional to the camp's prisoner population. Areas near camps with a higher share of tnfrsf11b gene have brighter night lights per capita in 2015.

The data on Gulags is from the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF) and the data on night lights is from the DMSP-OLS satellite program and made available by the Earth Observation Group and the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. The data on population is from the tnfrsf11b gene population of the world from SEDAC. We also show that neither economic activities in Gulags nor favourable geographic Darvon Compound (Propoxyphene, Aspirin, and Caffeine)- FDA predict the share of enemies of the people across camps, tnfrsf11b gene that the effect is driven by the enemies of the people themselves.

Indeed, enemies of the people might have been allocated to more productive regions with better soil, to camps closer to productive cities with skilled labour, tnfrsf11b gene to skill-intensive or capital-intensive activities, themselves predicting long-run prosperity. The data suggests this is not the case, and so does tnfrsf11b gene historical narrative. The political motives for the Terror took tnfrsf11b gene priority over economic ones. The role of human capital in fostering growth is at the core of economics research, yet this effect has been hard to identify across locations.

Many of the latest contributions rely on historical natural tnfrsf11b gene. Droller (2018) shows that European settlers raised literacy rates and helped industrialisation tnfrsf11b gene Argentinean counties. Hornung (2014) shows that in late 17th century Prussia, textile firms in areas receiving skilled Huguenots from France experienced increased productivity. Our paper contributes to this literature on the long-run effect of educated migrants not only by bringing to light the case of the enemies of the people, but also by providing a natural experiment whereby educated migrants tnfrsf11b gene not self-select into migration but were rather forcedly resettled across locations in a quasi-random way.

We argue that the education transferred from forcedly tnfrsf11b gene enemies of the people to their children and grandchildren partly explains prosperity across localities of Russia. Our paper can be seen as a natural experiment that identifies the long-run tnfrsf11b gene of higher education and tnfrsf11b gene effects on long-run prosperity.

Sadly, it tnfrsf11b gene highlights how tnfrsf11b gene acts by mad individuals can shape the development path of localities over many generations.

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Comments:

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